Evaluation of the epidemiological profile and prognostic factors in traumatic brain injury at a trauma center in Rio de Janeiro

Autores: Gabriela Bezerra Figueiredo1, Igor Bromonschenkel Brandão1, Leila Alves Pereira1, Luana Ferreira Martins de Toledo1
1Hospital Estadual Alberto Torres – Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil

Objective: To describe the epidemiological variables of pediatric patients who suffered head trauma and were admitted to Hospital Estadual Alberto Torres (HEAT), in its trauma center, pioneer in Brazil, to identify possible factors related to morbidity and mortality of these patients.

Methods: Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study with review of electronic records, MVPEP and data from Epimed Solucions. We included patients under 18 years old, diagnosed with TBI, who were admitted to the HEAT trauma center between November 2015 and June 2017.

Results: Of the seventy-one patients, 71.8% were males, 40% adolescents, from 8 months to 17 years. The most
common causes were fall (52.1%) and automobile accidents (42.3%). Regarding the type of traumatic brain injury (TBI), 63% were mild, 7.4% moderate and 29.6% severe. Of these, most (61.9%) were referred to HEAT after receiving the first care in other hospitals. Eleven patients died, 66.6% with primary care in another hospital.

Conclusion: Our study resembled the previous studies in relation to the epidemiological data. Although HEAT is
a reference in TBI victims, most of them did not receive the primary care at our unit. Since the initial approach and
prevention of secondary brain injury are the main factors related to the best clinical outcome of TBI victims, measures to reduce the time interval between the accident and care in a specialized center can reduce mortality and secondary damage to trauma.